hypothermia are cold-related emergencies that may quickly become life or limb
threatening. Preventing cold-related emergencies includes not starting an
activity in, on, or around cold water unless you know you can get help quickly
in an emergency. Be aware of the wind chill. Dress appropriately and avoid
staying in the cold too long. Wear a hat and gloves when appropriate with layers
of clothing. Drink plenty of warm fluids or warm water but avoid caffeine and
alcohol. Stay active to maintain body heat. Take frequent breaks from the cold.
Avoid unnecessary exposure of any part of the body to the cold. Get out of the
cold immediately if the signals of hypothermia or frostbite
Frostbite is the freezing of a specific body part such as
fingers, toes, the nose or earlobes.
Signals of frostbite
lack of feeling
in the affected area; skin that appears waxy, is cold to the touch, or is
discolored (flushed, white or gray, yellow or blue).
What to do for
1. Move the
person to a warm place.
2. Handle the area gently; never rub the affected
3. Warm gently by soaking the affected area in warm water (100–105
degrees F) until it appears red and feels warm.
4. Loosely bandage the
area with dry, sterile dressings.
5. If the person’s fingers or toes are
frostbitten, place dry, sterile gauze between them to keep them
6. Avoid breaking any blisters.
7. Do not allow the
affected area to refreeze.
8. Seek professional medical care as soon as
Hypothermia is another cold-related emergencies. Hypothermia
may quickly become life threatening. Hypothermia is caused by the cooling
of the body caused by the failure of the body’s warming system. The goals of
first aid are to restore normal body temperature and to care for any conditions
while waiting for EMS personnel.
Signals of hypothermia
numbness, glassy stare; apathy, weakness, impaired judgment; loss of
What to do for
1. CALL 9-1-1
or the local emergency number.
2. Gently move the person to a warm
3. Monitor breathing and circulation.
4. Give rescue
breathing and CPR if needed.
5. Remove any wet clothing and dry the
6. Warm the person slowly by wrapping in blankets or by
putting dry clothing on the person. Hot water bottles and chemical hot packs may
be used when first wrapped in a towel or blanket before applying. Do not
warm the person too quickly, such as by immersing him or her in warm water.
Rapid warming may cause dangerous heart arrhythmias. Warm the core first (trunk,
abdomen), not the extremities (hands, feet). This is important to mention
because most people will try to warm hands and feet first and that can cause